by Friedhelm Hartmann
This article is based on the assumption that metrical basics need to be audited for global redundancy that may subtlety hinder important elements of further musical development. As plea for real-time communication utilizing contemporary electronic media, an implementation example is shown to demonstrate how frozen metrics could be transformed into a livelier platform enabling new musical solutions for various audiences. Before illustrating possible deployment opportunities by introducing existing and proposed models based on this platform, the underlying metrical progression paradigm is generalized and presented within a unified stylistic approach that intents to support the establishment of new commonalities in the musical structure across different target communication functions. Eventually the author would like to encourage any kind of feedback and cooperation wherever the suggested elements are able to gain a relevant resonance.
The amount of sounds, which are communicated in a musical context today and which are freed from their physical source at the same time, being it mechanical or electronically, is tremendous.
While sounds are still carrying their production system characteristics as a part of their identity, considering the World Wide Web distribution and the nature of all kind of electronic mixing and processing systems, sounds are basically totally free today to interact in any way with each other at their phenotypical level. Thus they seem to be completely free to enable the creation of any new kind or type of musical context or style.
The new possibilities are so rich and overwhelming that we are not surprised to see on the other hand a very high degree of reproduction of musical concepts which originating from “older” times. Moreover, the new power of electronic media distribution multiplied by the World Wide Web seems even to re-enforce and to solidify those older concepts.
For example, the concept of organizing music in bars which originates historically from the need to synchronize human players in a real-time performance situation at a defined location and time is still by far the dominating rhythmical organization method in a medium where such an organization would not necessarily be needed.
This raises the question if the hierarchical-periodic rhythmical organization (represented by the overwhelming use of 4/4 bars) represents also an optimum concept for non-instrumental music, for example, in its ability to support dance (as it can be shown by the reproduction of 3/4 and 4/4 based dance pattern in commercial synthesizers)?
Or, does our mindset that learned from instrumental solutions - now empowered by the high reproduction rate in the electronic media - hinder us to discover new solutions that would be more inherent and adequate to the new medium (represented by “free sound meetings”) while still satisfying our basic musical needs (for example, to support dance elements)?
I tend to agree with the second question statement:
· No matter which sounds we use, relating any kind of rhythmical creation to a hierarchical-periodic system represented by metrics like the 4/4 bars seems to increasingly reproduce an non-proportional high number of well-known pattern that rather refer to known music than establish new or significant extended experiences.
· As a result, an increasingly limiting factor seems to capture other musical elements as well, such as melodic development, resulting in similar recycling effects as described above.
· As a reaction to it, music that wants to differentiate itself from the overuse of known pattern seems very often to create an opposite solution which solidifies the same situation even more while remaining in a “negative” or “opposed” dependency. For example, rhythmical dance elements are very often rejected together with their limited metric context, instead of trying to decouple them from this context and using them in a new way.
· These contextual difficulties may be an indication for the strong force of systemic sedimentation which goes far beyond our natural given abilities of musical reception or reflection within our momentary social context. I suggest to consider the hierarchical-periodic system and its implications as a specific “musical operating system” as opposed to other musical operating systems that would organize its elements through different principles, for example, Indian music that organizes metrics by the accumulation of rhythmical cells with continuously varying numbers of pulses.
Focusing on those areas which might be hidden by these systemic communication issues could help to enable a discussion how areas that suffer from recycling effects of the musical operating system could be improved and which musical values and opportunities would lie in such new areas.
In order to help this discussion being more efficient, I would like to illustrate the explored principles with early implementation instances which have been built on top of a public sound community during the past years, and to share them gladly with anyone who feels relevance to this topic, being it musical artists, students, teachers, or musical researchers.
With its storage capabilities, the electronic media created a new quality of communication: Sounds or even entirely pieces can be repeated in exactly the same way over and over again. Here are a few examples:
· Drum samples in a rhythmical loop of a pop song, played in a live performance
· Playlists holding various pieces of contemporary music in the Internet
Let’s call those communication units “fixed” and in terms of the communication act “posted”, as you would pin a poster on the wall for everyone to visit and to watch.
“Variable” communication units would appear every time in a slightly different shape but not necessarily neglecting their identity. Again, here are a few examples:
· Drum sounds in a rhythmical loop of a pop song appearing each time with a slightly different volume, filter setting and entry time in order to simulate a real drum being played
· A modular composition where the interpret takes decisions about the order of the different parts
The communication act could be called “animated” as it requires a real live experience to recognize the differences each time new. This could be also interpreted as a sign of uniqueness or sensual complexity of being non-repeatable in an exact manner, much like a living organism.
As soon as you would record and make such an animated event available as an exact copy for replay, you would have - again - posted it.
The whole differentiation becomes even more interesting when looking into which layers of a musical communication are built of fixed and which are built of variable elements at the same time. For example:
· A score of an instrumental composition as a fixed layer (the score is posted) while its interpretation as a variable layer (the notes are played every time a bit different, which means animated)
· A free improvisation with a sampler (animated layer) where the samples are repeated as an exact copy (posted elements)
· A running drum machine with a static loop (posted) onto which unique melodic and effect elements are dropped (animated)
· An electronic piece of art which is played from a laptop using a standard sound sequencer (such as ProTools, which would be a posted approach), whereas an interpret controls multiple output channels by a mixer in order to adapt the piece to a certain physical room (animated appliance of volume and filters in a live situation)
Standard sequencers such as mentioned in the above example are based on the traditional score structure. Each sound has its exact entry point, beginning, end, amplitude, envelope, etc. A composer would edit these functions in relation to other sounds with similar parameters aiming to achieve a kind of final status of the sound score, which would be considered as an optimum – yet authorized – scenario.
Animated sequencers are suitable to produce unique musical situations even so they include also posted elements. They exist in form of various real-time configurations, as we learned from the early days of analogue electro-acoustic music till digital patches realized in software solutions like MAX, for example.
The animated sequencing model introduced in this article is being built on so-called “Animated Sound” objects. These objects can be scheduled simultaneously in real-time, every time in new shape and order.
In order to achieve a reasonable performance of this approach, posted and animated elements are combined at the following levels:
1. At the lowest level, a posted sound sample is being called in real-time
2. At the level of an Animated Sound object, player, random and navigation functions are applied to the sample to allow uniqueness of its appearance each time it is being called again
3. At a sequencer level, Animated Sounds calls can be recorded and replayed in different degrees of determination:
1. Recording of the exact sequence including all random outputs to replay a posted version
2. Recording of the exact time schedule of the Animated Sounds while generating their random parameters new with every replay
3. Recording of a sequence of Animated Sounds while applying rules of new appearance, for example, comprising four successive sounds to a simultaneous event
4. Allowing interactively playing and recording additional elements while the original sequence is being played (classic overdub)
5. Allowing to interact with the sequence itself during play, for example, to play or repeat parts of the sequence
In order to allow a unique animated listening experience for each sound, a minimum set of sound variations is applied to each Animated Sound (see next section).
The current implementation of the Animated Sounds model can be summarized as follows:
1. An Animated Sound contains at least one posted sound (this is simply a sound sample)
2. The Animated Sound includes player functions that allow to
1. start the sound interactively at different index locations
2. stop it at any time
3. mute the sound while it is playing
4. set or discard a loop while it is playing
5. set loop start and end points while a loop is playing
6. use a volume slider to jump to a new volume or to change it smoothly
7. use a panorama slider to jump to a new sound position or to change it smoothly
3. The Animated Sound includes pre-defined random functions that
1. change the index start point each time the sound is called
2. change the volume each time the sound is called
3. change the sound position (panorama) each time the sound is called
4. jump to a different sound (via sound links) each time the sound is called
4. The Animated Sound includes pre-defined sound links that allow to
1. access a number of sorted similar or different sounds
2. navigate from sound to sound based on a pre-defined network of sounds
5. The Animated Sound includes a pre-defined scheduler that allows to
1. jump automatically to another sound or to itself to be played with new parameter settings
2. stop automatically, including a predefined decay, which may be randomized as well
3. jump automatically to predefined indices within a sound sample
The “Figure 1” online example above can be used to experience the described functions (available through www.cm-gallery.com/freesound/FleX/BreakingBars_01.htm). The example requires the Internet Explorer browser version 6 upwards in accordance with the Adobe Shockwave player. The “Figure 1” online page includes also links to a complete interactive description of the Animated Sounds and further background information.
Where possible, it would be ideal to be able to link the sample to its source generation algorithms as well, in order to edit its parameters, to offer pitch or filter changes, etc., as known from MAX capabilities, for example. This is, however, not included in the current implementation, as it invokes also further challenges for a web environment, etc.
The value of sound animation methods becomes evident when comparing it to its posted equivalent. With posted sounds, our listening experience focuses on the internal variations and relations, while the periodical context (posted metrics) works in the background:
Now, the same sound is used in an animated fashion. Our listening experience focuses here still on internal relationships of the sample but now also on the relationships that are built when repeating the sound each time in a different manner:
In other cases, these two levels maybe even closer to each other, especially when listening to it for the first time (as also learning effects changing the experience dynamically):
It is important to mention that the degree of difference between the posted and an animated effect of the same sound elements can vary a lot. This bridges posted and animated experiences on one side, keeping its anchor in known listening experiences, while smoothly opening the space for lots of additional possible musical values on the other side.
On an abstract level, Animated Sounds which are differentiated by their index entry points are playing like on an instrumental scale. Imagine a glissando sound as base sample:
This sound, obviously simpler in a posted continuous shape can appear as a source for more sophisticated melodic expression, even more when spectra and volume transformation are involved in the tone shifting process of the original sound:
Animations can be generated both by scheduled events that are pre-defined as well as by real-time interaction with the sound graphics that allows free control of the sample index. This “index-clicks” can still be supported by automated volume and panorama changes at the same time.
From this experience it is only a small step to imagine the potential of more complex non-linear functions or scales for which samples can be used to expand the melodic or rhythmical scope. Also, links between various Animated Sounds can be included in the real-time scenario to further widen the musical spectra:
The complexity that can be applied here is extremely scalable. Just imagine using samples which are an output of Animated Sounds becoming controllable in the same manner.
In popular music environments, the scalability of the “animation degree” may encourage for trials that keep most of the known sound experiences while breaking with the fundamental operating system or – so to say – breaking the (4/4) bars. For example, the following static loop
seems to have a good ability to appear in an animated way without suffering from too much discontinuity:
The following complete set of Animated Sounds which would include this animated loop as rhythmical base could be used as an element of a rather popular oriented Sound Track:
In another example, a slow drum loop is being transformed as a part of a rather quite sound scenario:
To listen to the full piece where this “Sound Scape” has been included you may visit the corresponding music video at YouTube:
Figure 12: “Breakin’ bars” #16 at www.youtube.com/watch?v=6eUf6m0zfzg
This example is a part of a study for YouTube assemblies of various dance clips (including amateurs and professionals of all scales) called “Breakin’ Bars” where non-periodical pattern are applied especially to break dance figures, which very often exceed periodical movements as well:
Figure 13: “Breakin’ bars” videos available at www.youtube.com/profile?user=FreesoundMusic&view=playlists
A non-periodic construction of musical phrases has obviously consequences for the musical form as well. As a response to a binary formal structure which is a result of periodical rhythmical patterns and would often constitute multiple units of 4, 8, 16 etc., an animated structure could be accumulated through a continuously increasing and decreasing size of its formal parts. It might be a nice exercise to experience this suggested principle – which we call “Wave Form Design” – in a piece like this taken from the same above collection:
Figure 14: “Breakin’ bars” #10 at www.youtube.com/watch?v=cN7sDdW5HdE
For public places, the reduction to one static Animated Sound assembly as a kind of “Sound Image” representing music for environmental occasions may be sufficient:
Figure 16: “Breakin’ bars” #10 based on Sound Scape 3 at www.youtube.com/watch?v=HfdypUQ3T00
It might be worth to think about the lack of attention or intentional listening when hearing background music as an advantage – not as constrain – for establishing new musical experiences, just “by the way”, or as a “Trojan Horse”. For more examples and information about the related Sound Image project “Changes of Music”, you may visit the following site:
Figure 17: “Changes of Music” at freesound.ning.com/group/injections/forum/topics/changes-of-music-65-sound
Animated Sounds used in differentiated music environments
The reuse of more differentiated material through animation can lead to fairly sophisticated structures allowing the listener to dive deeper into the material while still providing a quite consistent and stable scope of sound relationships.
The following sound exposes differentiated material in a posted fashion:
Figure 18: Animated Sound (posted mode) – complete sample
When animated, a continuous sound generator seems to produce the sound stream. In fact, the same sample as above is used over and over again in the following example:
Figure 19: Animated Sound (animated mode) – using sample as generator
Through its scalability, the model of Animated Sounds allows a high degree of flexibility which can allow highly differentiated rhythmical structures to enable counterpoint-like inclusion of melodic phrases. This way, rhythmical elements can be transformed into new continuous listening experiences, realized through various floating degrees of rhythmical exposure:
Please note that the shown model can be directed for change on a higher level (moving to further Sound Scapes by using single play controls) as well as being differentiated at a lower level (interacting with the full set of Animated Sound functionality during the play of the Sound Scape). This allows basically to “interpret” the music at different levels in real-time or configuring it very conveniently for sound installations or similar occasions.
Obviously, the continuous model of the Wave Form Design as mentioned in the former section seems to be even more suitable for sophisticated or differentiated developments of a musical form. The following “Sound Drama”, completely built of noise samples, may be an example for a continuous rhythmical stream that does not fall into any kind of periodical “snap-trap” while still providing the feeling of an ongoing and forward moving “drive”:
Figure 21: “Movement” – first part of “Noise Symphony” at www.cm-gallery.com/gex01r04.htm#nsy01
More examples of this kind are available at the same site:
Figure 22: “Electric Symphonies” series at www.cm-gallery.com/gex01r04.htm
Looking into musical commonalities of diverse musical genres or targeted experiences may encourage to discover important values or benefits of consistent stylistic transformations across musical ecosystems. These transformations can strengthen in return the distinct areas of targeted listener groups while enriching the experiences toward wider acceptance as well as building the ground for natural evolvement freed from “unavoidable” recurring redundancies that may be caused by elements and dependencies of an overused musical operating system.
Needless to say that applying similar elements and principles to very popular and very sophisticated pieces of musical communication at the same time is not a new concept at all. Mozart will probably always serve as the best example of this attitude, but he is of course not an exception at all in this respect.
On the other hand, in a musical world where sounds more and more play key roles as foundational elements instead of tones with their discrete rhythmical and harmonic relationships, the question, how stylistic commonalities can be achieved, even if this should be an objective at all, may look overambitious.
Today, the overwhelming number and variety of concepts seems rather to produce the opposite tendency, manifested by an enormous power toward further differentiation through stylistic separation. But does this tendency automatically lead to more value or to more individuality?
We believe that in our current situation successful differentiation can be rather achieved by stylistic unification serving as a basis for individualization, where individualization becomes better visible and powerful on top of a common ground.
This brings us back to the function of a musical operating system. As long as I feel the need to reject foundational elements since they seem overused, I will need to separate myself from it. As soon as I succeed to reuse foundational elements in my own way without falling into any kind of “snap-trap”, I might be able to create a musical communication that has a much broader relevance for a lot of different listeners although I’m still communicating through my very personal profile. But exactly this may help to create eventually the ground for a greater and lasting power of individuality.
To give these assumptions a try, some verification aspects need to be visited. Within the framework of this article, I would like to suggest looking into the following stylistic aspects:
1. Balancing “band” and “bend” sounds
2. Getting a clear understanding of possible musical deployment targets
3. Anthropological basics as a common ground for the semantic classification of musical elements and functions
4. Stylistic relevance of anthropological oriented balance and derivation capabilities
In electronic media, sounds or sound structures tend to be closed to one of the following poles:
· Pure sound recording of the physical world, represented by the aesthetics of the Musique concrète – bound to reality, combination of discrete elements, also: instrumental sound tracks played by a band = “band” sounds
· Pure or “artificial” sound generation by means of electronic techniques represented by the aesthetics of the Cologne school – pure sound parameter modulations, networked models of sound synthesis, etc. = “bend” sounds
Both poles may stand for the following semantic implications:
· Recorded sounds are – as the process suggests – conservative, backward looking. They are rather of a static nature, not modulated and discrete. They are directly linked to our non-electronic hearing experience, originating from nature or other sounds in our environment, voices, mechanical instruments, etc.
· Generated sounds are – as the process suggests – progressive, forward looking, based on visionary elements. They are rather of dynamic nature, modulated or “bend” in a physical continuous space by various electronic parameters, not bound by physical limitations in the real world. They are linked to “typical” electronic hearing experiences for which very often no other comparison pattern can be found, and which can be categorized according to the various known electronic sound generation and processing methods.
In the same way,
· Posted sound experiences tend to sediment band sound experiences, whereas
· Animated sound experiences tend to support bend sound experiences.
These poles are of course abstractions, as recorded sounds may be modulated as well, or generated sounds may tap into known non-electronic recognition pattern (for example, bird phrases). In addition, both worlds tend to converge as follows:
· Sound recordings go through electronic equipment and become more and more transformed into heavily processed, abstract “bend” sound material.
· Sound generation methods are used to simulate more and more real physical “band” sound events, when applying methods of physical modeling, for example.
Using sound animation methods,
· band sound experiences can be transformed into bend sound experiences, while
· new bend sound experiences can be solidified through a higher degree of included repeated elements (still varied or animated).
This rough polarization can be extrapolated to musical structure and composition:
· On the discrete conservative pole we find elements of the “old” musical operating system: beside band sounds, we find discrete tonal scales, relatively fixed relationships of tones, self-contained division of time values representing the binary 2-4-8-16 hierarchy, etc.
· On the continuous progressive pole we find elements of new listening experiences: transitions from one sound into another, tonal modulations like glissandi, metric modulations, rather chaotic distributions, etc.
An accentuated dialogue and convergence between both of these spheres may be beneficial:
1. It may provide a rich, fruitful and growing area of new discoveries.
2. It can combine conservative and progressive hearing experiences or even bring them into a true synthesis.
3. The free play between band and bend elements can support a smooth transition toward more progressive elements without losing general relevance and acceptance by the listener, and risking narrowing and isolating communication tendencies. This way it has certainly also relevancy for educational purposes.
4. It may help to consolidate and formalize elements and rules of a new musical operating system to gain maximum leverage for instrumental or technical capabilities, deployment, etc. Posted and animated versions of the same sound can be offered, for example.
The stylistic determination in the field of band and bend sound and structural elements should specifically focus on those elements, which are suitable to converge or shift between both poles to support integration capabilities wherever possible. Then it should be also quite feasible to support musical areas that follow very different objectives.
The following deployment model is built upon two axes:
· Left to right: Bend elements to Band elements.
· Bottom up: Popular to expert listening.
Figure 24: Generic musical deployment model
On a fairly high level, the four resulting poles can be characterized as follows:
This summarizes music with a high degree of experimental (bend) sounds, including lots of noises and other extreme sound material, strong processed natural sounds, etc. Labmusic often includes formal experiments as well.
This summarizes music with a strong orientation to physical and balanced sounds as known from common hearing experiences. The musical structure itself is more balanced and musical forms are rather simple and not too concentrated.
This summarizes music with a high degree of stylistic determination due to specific utilization purposes, for example, music for dance. The musical structure is very concentrated, sounds are advanced but balanced, and the musical forms are rather simple.
This summarizes music with the highest degree of musical differentiation through an optimum balance of distinguished musical values. This music functions as a hub for all other musical areas, serving as an orientation for wise information reduction in advanced music design (Labmusic convergence path) as well as for enrichment opportunities of more conservative music design (Pubmusic and Clubmusic convergence path).
Figure 25: Generic deployment model for musical genres
The different deployment areas can serve as a map for existing musical communication channels, putting them into a consolidated view of interrelationships that can be realized by common stylistic elements as known from successful “older” musical operating systems. At the same time the following terms can be suggested to provide a clear differentiation of the characteristics that would be typical for the respective deployment area:
· Sound Image
Sound Images are "Occasional Music" that can be seen as a kind of "non-listening" music experience. Music would be usually presented in the background where attention is put only occasionally. With Sound Images, a certain scenario of sounds remains static for a longer period of time. A listener could dive into it but also interrupt or leave it any time. He can keep it in the background like atmospheric wallpaper. He decides, however, how and for which occasion to use it, unlike "Environmental Music" that fills a place with music or sounds without any possibility of interaction by the listener (see “Sound Space”).
· Sound Track
Sound Tracks are basically songs (without referring to “movie sound tracks”), which stand for the most popular and common understanding of music, usually backed by a strong rhythmical fundament and often used as “Dance Music”. We suggest calling it "tracks" rather than "songs" since this allows also including pieces of pure sound assemblies like Techno styles. Short in duration, concise and straight in its message, fast to consume, easy to enjoy, entertaining, and intended for full listening attention, even so it is often used in the background as well.
· Sound Trip
With Sound Trips a listener enters intentionally deeply an uninterrupted musical listening experience. Ongoing long-lasting pattern, usually presented with a high intensity is suitable to completely embrace him. Many kinds of "Trance Music" can be determined by its underlying romantic character being it music by Wagner, Tangerine Dream, Jazz Jam sessions, Trance techno style, etc. Often, this kind of music is presented in live sessions in direct interaction with the audience.
· Sound Drama
“Dramatic Music” requires even more attention than Trance Music. It stands for a presentation of the music with an extremely wide range of its expressions and capabilities. A listener needs to follow a Sound Drama like he would follow a theater piece or a movie. A kind of inner story or dramaturgy is fundamental for this kind of music and represents – beside enigmatic music (see below) – the highest level of musical (not necessarily structural) complexity possible in musical communication.
· Sound Enigma
Sound Enigmas may summarize musical creations that are based on "counterpoint" like ways of musical construction, providing the opportunity for the highest unity of intellectual and emotional density that can be probably achieved (no better example than Joh. Seb. Bach). Any work toward a definition what "sound counterpoint" means today would be certainly a great foundational contribution to further musical explorations of “Enigmatic Music” with strong impact to other areas as well.
· Sound Park
Where sounds are basically "parked" there is the music rather built in its potential. Instead of being elaborated as a kind of story, or providing trance intensity, etc., "Prospective Music" functions very much like Sound Images in that sense that parts of it can be replaced or moved around without decreasing its overall quality. Unlike with Sound Images, a Sound Park suggests a kind of sequential catalogue of sounds (more or less systematically). It can be a piece to listen to or just a collection of sounds where a listener may just pick whatever he likes. An extreme idea of Sound Parks is known by the American composer John Cage that lets the listener enter an environmental Sound Space to experience the arbitrary elements as music by himself (listening = composing).
· Sound Game
The possible involvements of a listener to follow or change the rules of a musical game are wide spread. Mozart’s famous composition cube belongs to it as well as mechanical music machines and other systems of musical interaction. Obviously the electronic media is especially suitable for a wide range of truly “Interactive Music” environments. Sound Games may be also exposed in public environments, such as galleries, where interactive attendance would be required from the visitors.
· Sound Space
Sound Spaces stand for musical installations which are usually placed in public places literally as a part of the architecture or interior environment, unchangeable by the visitors. “Environmental Music” could also be part of an exhibition where the installation is being perceived without interaction.
For each of the musical communication forms multiple sub categories can be found or created, whereas overlapping and combinations would apply in addition.
In a nutshell, we may look at the bottom area of the model as open or experimental areas, including Sound Parks, Sound Games, Sound Spaces, and Sound Images, while the upper areas represent music in a more determined or productized fashion, including Sound Tracks, Sound Trips, Sound Dramas, and Sound Enigmas. The latter would require a stronger involvement of the musical authorship, as well as a different dedication from the listener in the communication process. Listening examples mapped by the model are available at the author’s musical home page:
Figure 26: Examples for deployment model at www.cm-gallery.com
In order to be able to apply common elements to such a variety of communication forms and objectives as shown above, and in order to do that with the capability of an ongoing and smooth overall transformation from band to bend areas, musical commonalities should be found that are deeply rooted in anthropological conditions.
Based on a phenotypical analysis of sounds and their musical appliance in most various musical styles, the following high-level categorization may be helpful as a starting point:
Figures are musical structures dominated by permanent repetitive and rhythmical actions in order to keep the musical flow going. These structures are highly 'communicative'. They allow other structures to dock on while appearing as a constitutive background.
Xmission and Integration
Repetitive figures are most suitable to cause a physical resonance of our body, creating the ultimate desire to move along with the sounds. In the same time, our spirit is kept awake while continuously analyzing - even without knowing - the ongoing relations and comparisons presented by the play of figures.
As a result, Figures are creating a ground for transmission of musical information that hardly can be rejected and that transport other musical phenomenon, while providing the potential to integrate with them.
Layers are musical structures of rather static nature or representing longer lasting processes. They allow to “dive” deeply into sound and sound complexes, experiencing mental space, and creating a kind of emotional environment. Layers are not always present.
Only if sound events stay persistent for a certain period of time we are able to grasp their characteristics in greater depth. Layers provide the opportunity to deep dive into musical structures and to develop a true emotional relationship with them.
Like Figures, Layers provide a kind of ongoing carrying functionality, while Events and Xpressions provoke rather particular and more focused reactions.
Events represent musical actions of singular and individual character that occur rather arbitrary. Their appearance can be very different and spans from fill-ins representing a kind of “comment” till important major changes or occurrences of the musical structure like special breaks, or start of new sections.
Leaving the Structure
The primary function of Events is to evoke the highest awareness in relation to what the current musical situation provides. Events deliver the “greater picture”.
They are the drivers for moving toward the exploration of further experiences. A musical structure that owns very few surprises will tend to cause very conservative and recurring behavior, while an overload of events cannot keep the inherent and optimum power of the surprising information due to disorientation.
Xpressions are musical structures leading the musical communication. Usually split in phrases, these structures are of individual and expressive nature and most responsible for the “message” of a certain piece of music. Xpressions are almost always present.
Focusing on Messages
The highest density and degree of a joint emotional and intellectual feedback is caused by musical expressions. Without them, music is "playing" (figures), "sounding" (layers), or "attracting" (events), but not "speaking" nor "telling" anything.
We are following expressions as we follow some bodies' speech, and we are responding with a well developed sense of interest that resides between a pole of being bored (too much repetitions) and a pole of being overwhelmed (too much different information) – a sense that is of course very personal and depends on our own dynamic and individual hearing experiences.
Figure 31: Example of a
typical FleX sound assembly (Sound Scape) –
credits: Corsica_S, nicStage, Jimbrowski-One, ERH
For educational purposes these categories can be linked to the classical four temperaments which help to define music and its stylistic requirements as a come together of different mentalities or mental beings in order to create a complex and wide resonance through the musical communication.
Further, we may find that a full coverage of those areas is needed in order to satisfy the various communication areas. For example, we may define Figures and Xpressions as mandatory elements at least for the determined communication forms Sound Track, Sound Trip, Sound Drama and Sound Enigma regardless their characteristics as band or bend dominated elements.
In terms of the musical structure, FleX elements can also be combined in various numbers and arrangements as it can be seen from the following example:
Figure 33: “Web Song” #2 at
(for credits, click [i] button at the respective sound in the web page; to start, click white button)
“FleX” can be used as a logo to summarize this categorization model of the four main areas Figures, layers, events, and Xpressions, representing a “conservative” anthropological pool on one hand, as opposed to “power” (flexing) and “flexibility” to express the adaptation efforts required to conquer new and progressive areas on the other hand.
Once we agree to accept anthropologic roots as a basic differentiator of sound semantics, we will start to be careful mapping complex sound synthesis and composition rules to linear parametric spaces as often suggested by the layout of electronic sound generating systems. In order to create and use sounds effectively in musical communication, it could be helpful to look which fields of semantic resonances need to be considered, as a starting point for further musical differentiation.
Moreover, accepting the musical communication model as mandatory part of the structure definition of sound and music demands a semantic orientation for any sound generation and composition to gain appropriate and intended resonances by the audience.
The abstract model of a Semantic Sound Synthesis is built on two axes – spanning the total of auditive sensations down to specific systemic sedimentations (the material level), while mapping these across human experiences starting by anthropological levels up to the highest degree of individual resonance, happening in just a moment of an individual life.
Figure 34: Model of Semantic Sound Synthesis
Together with the anthropological view as introduced by the “FleX” model above, four semantic poles of sound and music recognition can be used to determine competency levels in the musical communication:
On a first level that should be even valid beyond human experiences, we need to discuss the parameters of direct sensorial traction. The distinction of a tone versus noise, harmonic versus disharmonic spectra, soft versus hard shaped sound envelopes and much more belongs to this area.
The behavior of sounds in time around the human heart beat as central anthropologic determination for the feeling of speed adds another level to the meaning of the sound as discussed above. Anthropological determinants are also given by the distortion of the auditive resonance through other sensations like visual impressions, and so on.
The level of social differentiation specifies conventions and sedimentations that are a result of a collective selection process, very much alike what we called formerly a “musical operating system” on which further stylistic differentiations are taking place.
The same way as the Grid determines specific relationships out of the sensorial total, the Mood determines the specific realization of the communication process by an individual based on a broader mind-set determined by the Character. This actual communication is obviously biased by an enormous amount of determinants dictated by the specific social, biological, environmental conditions of the individual listener.
The model of the Semantic Sound Synthesis is built to promote a holistic view on sound and composition rules, which can be simply achieved by acknowledging all the important areas of semantic or communication relevancy and the attempt to improve our understanding of their interdependencies.
Using the above axes, we may be tempted to map supporting musical science areas as follows:
Figure 35: Supporting musical science areas
The framework of this article won’t allow elaborating on the interrelationships of these areas more in depth. At this point we may just look to an example, where categories of a music theory would be always linked to corresponding categories of a sound theory. This way, a comparison of tonal music, where certain sound classes are clearly invariant, with tonal music, where the “color” has impact on tonal decisions, could gain additional insights, etc.
Before exploring examples derived from implementation suggestions of the unified deployment approach, I would like to emphasize why a discussion rooted in rhythmical structures in music may be particularly suitable to trigger a holistic discussion on how current conflicts of musical communication indicated by redundancies, ineffectiveness and other symptoms could be proactively addressed, and how this discussion can further help to promote musical understanding as an open and unique communication value across different societies:
1. Rhythm and metric organization based on rhythmical units is the primary level for structuring musical communication. This can easily be seen with music that does not own significant differentiation of sound events around the human heart beat which basically determines the center of rhythmical reception (determining slow, fast, etc.).
2. Rhythm itself cannot be discussed sufficiently without its interrelationship to other elements, like melodic elements, layers, etc. These other elements may be combined at a different track or being integrated as a more complete figure. For example, a rhythmical pattern will have a total different impact when linked to a different sequence of sounds or tones, creating different rhythmical sub-pattern depending on the similarity of the respective sound or tone elements.
3. The musical structure including its rhythmical elements is not complete or cannot be discussed without taking receptive targets (musical deployment) into consideration. This is based on the assumption that music itself is determined by its musical communication which would be hard to define otherwise. This is also where we start to be able to define a “meaning” to the elements we are using.
Taking the above into account, a stylistic solution could be targeted as follows:
· If there is a way to create musical value by combining or synthesizing “old” or “common” or “understood” elements represented by the “band” class of elements with new “bend” elements, listeners could gain the opportunity to “learn” new elements and to come used to it based on a sufficient pool of “known” elements which would keep the communication channel alive.
· In order to create the right mix or adaption with the elements, the stylistic capabilities need to be flexible enough to modulate or change known characteristics seamlessly into unknown or new values.
· The true semantic power or enablement of this approach lies of course in the ability to have
1. credible or authorized conservative elements (known to the recipient)
2. credible or authorized new elements (new to the recipient)
3. a credible or authorized combination or synthesis of these two or more elements as a musical value in itself
This combination of the known with the new information is a model for a true communication as a credible act of (creating or providing new) information: Person A is represented by sound A (he loves this sound, he would communicate or listen to it over and over again), person B is identifying itself by sound B (not less engaged than person A). Both sounds are originating from very different stylistic resources.
If now a style succeeds to bind sound A and sound B together in a credible way of musical information, person A will meet person B represented by his sound and probably accept him since his own sound is still a part of the message and vice versa. Person C that created the link learned from both and added its own view in the way the AB combination was set. This way, also person A and B are virtually meeting with person C as well.
Sharing musical experiences inside a musical communication, as composition or moderation of those experiences, requires conversation rules that represent basically a musical style. Depending on the kind of “operating system” built on; this style is capable to obtain a certain reach or scope of the communication. The wider the reach, the stronger the specific segment can be informed, and the more personal the musical message may occur.
The slogan “when sounds meet – just as people” expresses this approach of a “musical fusion reactor” and is built to encourage cross-linked semantics to create a true win-win situation for authors and recipients in a dynamic environment.
The International Computer Music Conference 2005 in Barcelona with the conference theme “Free Sound” was the trigger for “The Freesound Project”, which became the most successful sound sharing platform till today in the World Wide Web.
“The Freesound Project aims to create a huge collaborative database of audio snippets, samples, recordings, bleeps, ... released under the Creative Commons Sampling Plus License. The Freesound Project provides new and interesting ways of accessing these samples, allowing users to
· browse the sounds in new ways using keywords, a "sounds-like" type of browsing and more
· up and download sounds to and from the database, under the same creative commons license
· interact with fellow sound-artists”
“The Freesound Project” site is a good example how sounds of most different origins, structure and aesthetical positions can freely relate to each other, supported by community features that position sounds almost as “personalities”, holding their own homepage, profile, etc.
Figure 37: “Home page” of sound “balls.wav” at www.freesound.org/samplesViewSingle.php?id=31497
“The Freesound Project” is also a great example under how many aspects sounds can be set free today:
Free – How?
Free – What?
Free – Where?
Free of cost
Creative Commons License
Use for any purpose/audience
Free from physical constraints
Free generation and shaping
Free distribution (broadcast)
Any sound generation source
Free from stylistic constraints
Free mixing and merging
Combine popular/lab sounds
Not bound to metric scales
Free to communicate
Free behavior of sounds
Free interaction of sounds
All anthropologic patterns apply
Open semantic composition
Although “The Freesound Project” is not intended to restrict the sound interchange to musical use, it can be shown that a significant sector of this resource is well suited to feed musical intentions especially when looking into the fusion of diverse musical elements.
The “Freesound Music” community site is built to support new musical experiences while utilizing Freesounds supplied by “The Freesound Project”. The following musical user groups are currently targeted:
1. Freesound Explorations
This group is created for advanced musical students and music professionals that want to use Freesounds for their own musical occupation. This group may tend to focus on Sound Dramas and Sound Enigmas.
2. Freesound Injections
This group is open for people who use Freesounds to upgrade their tracks or like to enjoy pure Freesound jam-sessions. This group may tend to focus on Sound Tracks and Sound Trips.
3. Freesound Alchemy
This group is built to support interactive workshops helping to make any kind of Freesound Music.
4. Freesound Square
This group is arranged for people who love to listen to any kind of “Freesound Music” and like to share their experiences with it.
Figure 38: “Freesound Music” user groups at freesound.ning.com/groups
Beside these groups the site offers lots of standard community features in order to allow intensifying the overall “Freesound Music” communication via:
· Blog entries
· Concert reports
· Articles and discussions
· Uploading of favored music, musical imagery, or music videos of any kind
· Messaging between the members
· Playlists of music and music videos
· Sharing of sound creation and mixing freeware, and more.
Figure 39: Home page of “Freesound Music” at freesound.ning.com
One of the most intense “Freesound Music” community experiences so far has been a series of “Freesound Music” workshops held for pupils aged 14-15 at a public school in Tel Aviv.
A set of 6 initial sessions was dedicated to introduce into the concept of commonalities beyond stylistic constraints and to open the mind for new creative opportunities combining free sounds obtained from “The Freesound Project”:
1. “Collecting”: Of what does music consist?
Collect the main ingredients to be boiled (looking into style).
2. “Shaping”: How music is built?
Prepare the material and put it into the glass tube (looking into form).
3. “Heating”: How does musical material function?
Put fire under the glass tube (looking into the sound material).
4. “Vaporizing”: What is fixed and fluid material? (see band and bend sounds)
Make the material fluid (looking into atomic grids, releasing sounds).
5. “Mixing”: When sounds are a good fit?
Shake the glass tube with the fluids (looking into new Sound Scapes).
Figure 40: “Music Alchemy” course Sound Scape replies at freesound.ning.com/group/alchemy
6. “Pouring Out”: Creating a sound trip and sending it away…
Turn the tube and let the result stream out (looking into new musical shapes).
A second set of sessions gave the pupils the opportunity to collect sounds from “The Freesound Project” site in order to create their own sound composition. The results have been exciting especially in that sense that every student put a completely different musical attitude to it, while still following the general course guidelines.
Another interesting experience was to see the degree of freedom that was applied to the material of the pieces in spite of the typical stylistic predetermination of pop and classical music.
All pieces have been presented in a public concert together with an introduction which informed the audience about objectives and the path of the course:
Figure 41: “Music Alchemy” concert introduction at freesound.ning.com/group/alchemy/forum/topics/links-1
From a methodical standpoint the use of the Freesound Music site and its Alchemy group was extremely welcomed by the pupils:
· Each of the students got its own home page where he/she could present himself/herself with his own favored musical taste.
Figure 42: “Music Alchemy” home page example at freesound.ning.com/profile/Lilit
· The presentation of students work during sessions was simplified through the use of the site as online repository for the homework (see Figure 40).
· Students could share their work and communicate with each other beside the regular weekly session meetings.
· The relationship between teacher and students was significantly enhanced since it was possible to monitor the progress throughout the whole week using the website as communication tool including audio verification, technical assistance, etc.
· The intensified relationship supported by the website was certainly a factor that allowed positive and quite complex results in a very short time (the course was limited to 13 sessions only).
· The students finished the course with a steady reference or documentation of their achievements together with the possibility to apply the learned topics also in the future in the same environment and share it with further participants.
Figure 43: “Music Alchemy” student compositions at freesound.ning.com
The Sound Surf Project
At the level of sound creation, another course was held for a younger group of pupils (aged 12-13), where lots of unique sound results were created and eventually uploaded to “The Freesound Project”.
The course topics have been backed by dedicated work sheets that helped to examine the following items:
1. Elementary sound parameters (high/low, loud/weak) and typology of Figures, Layers, Events and Xpressions using known musical examples
2. Determining basic sound origins (instrumental, voice, environment, synthetic), spectral types (tone, tone mix, noise, hybrid), and combination of those together with the above sound typology while searching “The Freesound Project” online repository
Figure 44: “The Sound Surf Project”
worksheet excerpt for defining basic sound origins
3. Preparing and performing recordings with physical sounds, with free chosen combinations of sounds from “The Freesound Project”, and with explorations of sound generation models provided by MAX patches
4. Applying multiple sound processing methods to the recorded sounds, publishing the results at “The Freesound Project”, and sharing the sound experiences with each other
Figure 45: Student sounds at www.freesound.org/usersViewSingle.php?id=263230
Through the platform of “The Freesound Project”, pupils learned also a new social behavior of sharing musical values with a worldwide community, as their sounds have been used already by a wide number of users, including the students of the latter Music Alchemy course, who discovered them completely on their own based on “The Freesound Project” sound search features.
Figure 46: “The Sound Surf Project” page
with direct access to the pupils sounds at
The “Freesound Music” community site has been further a meeting point for educational workshops at universities including the presentation of the Semantic Sound Synthesis model (the above):
Figure 47: Video excerpts of “Semantic Sound Synthesis” workshops for advanced students at freesound.ning.com/group/explorations
Freesounders joining Freesound Music
When defining musical communication as a part of the musical structure, it is obvious that the degree of progressiveness of musical elements cannot be derived solely from parametric values but must be related to the current set of perceptional experiences of a listener as well. As a “less” and “more” exists on an abstract level of parametric modulation, exactly the same musical element will have a “less” or “higher” degree of progressiveness depending on which musical experiences are met in the musical communication cycle.
From that reason posted versions of animated sounds are available in addition to the animated mode. The following example presents a well-known musical design where the rhythmical structure is still remaining in posted or static loops while Xpressions and other elements are dropped in an animated fashion into the static structure.
Figure 48: “Images I” at freesound.ning.com/profile/Markus – credits: (see album info)
Only the full scalability between the poles of band and bend elements and structuring can provide the true freedom that is required to drive a successful adaptation and learning process. Please note also that this collection of 6 Sound Images has been created by a Freesounder with minor computer experience using the system of Animated Sounds for the first time and just for a couple of hours.
Other Freesounders develop different attitudes to share their Freesounder experiences with the community, as the following statement suggests:
owl, mikesh, jace and Freed. All of these guys get credit. All I did was added them into one. I used some very basic tools. I recorded the samples, then I trimmed and edited the file. Here's something interesting; When I was playing them I immediately thought that the 11 samples I heard sounded like a "Hidden Track" used by some bands (Marilyn Manson?). Anyways, when I played them all at the same time I said; "YES!” So here you go. I present my rendition of a “Hidden Track". I am creating these sounds for personal enjoyment. However, they MAY or COULD be used as a "Hidden Track" for those that would like to add it to their Music or CD's. Enjoy!
Figure 49: “Hidden Tracks” at freesound.ning.com/video?page=3 (page number may vary)
Freesounders were also joining the Freesound Music community when finding out that their sounds have been used by other members in order to learn more about their sound meetings with the other Freesounders, and for which the attribution rule of the Creative Commons License is especially supportive.
Figure 50: Project announcement to Freesounders at www.freesound.org/forum/viewtopic.php?p=20847
Community interrelationships are a great opportunity for the development of multimedia experiences or a higher awareness of Freesound Music related projects. The following set of pieces is a virtual meeting between the Freesound and the Electric Sheep community (http://electricsheep.org/), as introduced in the first chapter.
Figure 51: “Music of Changes” at www.youtube.com/profile?user=FreesoundMusic&view=playlists
Another example for the merge of creative communities is the “Breakin’ bars” cycle that was mentioned in the first chapter as well. It connects the Freesound with the YouTube community in form of multiple video responses:
Figure 52: “Breakin’ Bars” at www.youtube.com/profile?user=FreesoundMusic&view=playlists
Posted publications as being presented in playlists are fairly suitable for the productized approach of Sound Images or Sound Tracks. Other deployment areas may require more direct engagement in a real-time environment, such as Sound Trips or Sound Dramas.
Due to the object oriented design of Animated Sounds, which can be freely assembled within a standard browser environment, Freesound Music members are able to create and offer their own Sound Pages, including play controls, etc.:
Figure 53: Creating Sound Pages at freesound.ning.com/forum/topics/1486807:Topic:1563
Figure 54: Template based Sound Page created at freesound.ning.com/forum/topic/show?id=1486807:Topic:1501
A more user friendly approach supported by a catalogue of specific Shockwave objects has been implemented at another public location that is linked to the Freesound Music site:
Figure 55: Excerpt of Sound Page publishing preferences at www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/Publish/Prefs.htm
Figure 56: Sound Page building User Guide at
Pre-defined Sound Pages are available as well, supporting the various deployment areas of the Freesound Music community. “The Sound Surf Beach” offers a kind of Sound Games for “Freesound Square” and “Freesound Alchemy” groups where recorded sound surf paths can be shared through the Internet simply by interchanging and modifying a “Surf Code” in text format using email, messenger, or alike.
Figure 57: Creating a “Sound Trip” at www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/SoundTrips/SR-103Frame.htm
Figure 58: Sending a “Sound Trip” as Surf Code by email from www.cm-gallery.com
The open concept of the Sound Pages allows Freesound Music members to publish their own Sound Pages at “The Sound Surf Beach”:
Figure 59: Freesound Music member Sound Page at www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/SoundTrips/SR-136Frame.htm
A similar project uses more advanced sounds that could be suitable for the “Freesound Injections” group:
Figure 60: “The Sound S@nd Bank” at www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/SoundTrips/SoundBankFrame.htm
Users of the “Freesound Injection” group can also find a systematic catalogue of Freesounds to “inject” specific sounds into their own tracks. Since sounds are presented in a posted format, these pages can be also used for more traditional Sound Tracks or Sound Trips, whereas the free availability of advanced animated handling can be integrated to any degree desired.
Figure 61: “Freesound Injections” Sound Trip creation site at www.cm-gallery.com/freesound/inject.htm
Figure 62: “Freesound Injections” portal at www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/freesound/INJ/ContentFrame.htm
Figure 63: Posted sound environment at www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/freesound/INJ/!StartSession.htm
A similar sound library has been created for musically advanced users as targeted in the “Freesound Explorations” group. Here sounds are presented by the animated mode default and a larger selection of advanced bend sound structures is available.
Figure 64: “Freesound Explorations” Sound Trip creation site at www.cm-gallery.com/freesound/explore.htm
Further selections and assemblies can support the ability to effectively create “sound meetings”. The “Workbench” holds a complete repository of all sounds that are currently available as Animated Sounds:
Figure 65: “Workbench” with complete repository at www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/Collections/!Start.htm
The special importance of rhythmical structures building the ground for further musical decisions is reflected in the “Sound Roads” pages that hold a catalogue of Figures sorted by tempo:
Figure 66: Catalogue of Animated Sounds sorted by speed at www.cm-gallery.com/Projects/Envi_01c.htm
“Sound Scapes” holds a catalogue of suggested ‘sound meetings’ of sounds taken from the four main categories Figures, Layers, Events and Xpressions, from which users can start to create their own pieces:
Figure 67: “Sound Scapes” sorted by speed at www.cm-gallery.com/Projects/Envi_01b.htm
The “Matrix” is an example for an extended play console consisting of 88 simultaneous Animated Sounds, especially suitable for real-time performances using a touch screen. It is recommended to use larger Sound Pages such as the “Matrix” in an offline mode (DVD):
Figure 68: “Matrix” of 88 Animated Sounds at www.cm-gallery.com/Projects/Perf_01b.htm
A more advanced Sound Page environment, called the “Freesound Navigator”, allows creating, combining and playing sound assemblies in real-time across the whole repository by using Sound Scape palettes with a large number of Sound Scapes that can be even recorded and stored in real-time as well:
Figure 69: Freesound Navigator with full
repository real-time control at
Figure 70: Demonstration of “Freesound Navigator” within “Breakin’ Bars” video at www.youtube.com/watch?v=etyJa7WdGIs
As you can see in the video demonstration, the Sound Navigator is also equipped with the ability to display every sound author during the Animated Sound performance in real-time.
All pages that are demonstrated in this section join the same functionality, including:
· Assembly of currently displayed Animated Sounds to a new Sound Page
· Assembly of links of different Sound Pages to be included in the new Sound Page
· Session management for counting sound use (see next section)
· Technical extendibility through HTML based editing of Sound Page parameters
Figure 71: Technical documentation for Sound Page customizations at
· Technical extendibility through Shockwave based editing of Animated Sound parameters and further resources
Figure 72: Technical documentation for Animated Sounds customizations
Royalty Inheritance Program
As the use of Freesounds is bound to the Creative Commons Sampling Plus license, all Sound Pages are equipped with the ability to register all used Animated Sounds and to count their use per actual sound duration and number of calls of the particular sound anytime. Since Animated Sounds are always included in a Sound Page and controlled by it, this capability allows a fairly complete and detailed control of the distributed use of the sounds, including:
1. Sound Author Attribution
With a mouse click a complete report of all sound authors involved can be issued to be included into any piece of communication to disclose the required attribution.
2. Session information
More detailed information can be issued as well in the reports, including the links to the original sounds at “The Freesound Project”, duration of its use, number of calls etc. Extended reports are also available that summarize the use over a larger period of time.
Figure 74: Session reports, see www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/Docu/SoundCount/SoundCountUserGuide.htm
3. Project related assignments
For projects that are produced with Animated Sounds but distributed in classic music channels like CDs or other posted environments, a project related “RIP-Key” can be applied that allows separating those distributions in the calculation.
Figure 75: Project counting, see www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/Docu/SoundCount/SoundCountUserGuide.htm
Detailed information about the report facility can be obtained from the “Royalty Inheritance Program – User Guide” available through the above links. This User Guide explains also how Freesound creators could benefit from a commercial use of their sounds through Freesound Music Sound Pages.
Usually, when it comes to commercial use of Freesounds, no commercial limitation applies if Freesounds are used as they are presented by “The Freesound Project” which is in line with its version of the Commons Creative Sampling Plus license.
Figure 76: Sampling Plus 1.0 license for Freesounds at creativecommons.org/licenses/sampling+/1.0/
This changes when using Freesounds as Animated Sounds since the additional value provided by the Animated Sounds is covered by a different non-commercial Creative Commons license. Together with a waiver for commercial use, the basic idea is still to allow completely free non-commercial use as granted by the original Sampling Plus license, but to ask for a fair share from any party as soon this party uses the content for money and to forward this share to the parties that are involved in the value chain, starting from the originator of the sound.
Figure 77: Simple value chain of a creative
network with basic Creative Commons license terms,
see White Paper at www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/Docu/SoundCount/SoundCountWhitePaper.htm
To support this approach, a royalty sharing program (“Royalty Inheritance Program – RIP”) is being suggested, enabled by the ability of the system to track the exact use of the sounds in relationship to the original authors.
Figure 78: Royalty Inheritance model for
see RIP Waiver at www.cm-gallery.com/FleX/Docu/Legal/Waiver for Commercial Use.htm
The RIP model could be also suggested for similar value chains in today’s World Wide Web content development environments. The RIP model seems particularly suitable to support and encourage progressive or niche initiatives (for example, the author of experimental sounds) through the capability to allow an ongoing worldwide accumulation even of small amounts that could still become a significant figure for the particular initiator. More information can be obtained by the “Waiver for Commercial Use”, and by the “Royalty Inheritance Program – White Paper” (see links provided above).
The intention to breaking bars of musical communication as described in this article is a holistic platform approach that needs to cope with the challenge of linking a personal vision with interpersonal engagement and cooperation required to create a significant impact.
Therefore, depending on the degree of alignment and resonance that can be envisioned, the author will be glad to
1. respond to any request to share further information and insights and engage deeply in any cooperation opportunity with all of those readers, which would like to support the concept as a whole and even use it for their own occupation,
2. supply assistance to all of those readers that don’t agree with the complete concept but see value in particular aspects or suggestions of the content,
3. help to understand more in detail those parts of the content that couldn’t be communicated well enough,
4. especially respond to those of the readers that have strong concerns, critics, or any other comment deriving from different views onto the subject, or regarding the way the content has been presented.
Or let’s meet sounds, just as people…
Rhythm as a key factor
Rather to provide a conclusion, this article tries to offer a proposal. Meaningful conclusions about musical communication can obviously only be found when meeting the listener itself (including ourselves) in the daily biased battle of musical identification. As an integral part of the musical education and progression, the voice of the listener should always have a predominant place:
Figure 79: Listener feedback to Freesounds and Freesound Music at www.cm-gallery.com/gex01gb.htm
Figure 80: Public poll “What do you think about ‘flexible grooves’?” at www.freesound.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=4465
Some of the questions I have
1. Which technical platform would be ideal to proceed in an open-source environment, allow users to add Animated Sounds, provide sound generation tools for Animated Sounds, etc.?
2. Which institution would be ideal or interested in addressing cross-linked musical research and development of such a platform?
3. Which commercial organization would want to engage in new ways of creative musical networks and could benefit from “Freesound Music” features?
4. Which artistic cooperative projects could be suitable or pursued using “Freesound Music” elements?
Essay: Musikstruktur als Zeichen und Musik als Zeichensystem
Aus: Henze, Hans-Werner (Hrsg.): Die Zeichen. Neue Aspekte der musikalischen Ästhetik II. Frankfurt a. M. (Fischer) 1981. S. 222-255.
Ideen und Methoden der modernen strukturellen Linguistik
Musical life in a changing society: aspects of music sociology
Translated by David Marinelli. Portland, Or. : Amadeus Press, c1992.
ML3795 .B6313 1992
Essay: Kunst und Popularität
Musik und Bildung, Juni 1983
The Classical Style, Haydn Mozart Beethoven
The Viking Press, New York, 1971, 1976
The Idea of absolute music
trans. Roger Lustig.
Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1989.
ISBN: 0 226 13487 3
“An exploration of a student string quartett as a model of cooperative learning”
Sydney Conservatorium of Music, University of Sydney
"Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music" in Three Classics In The Aesthetics Of Music
Dover Publications (1962); originally published by G. Schirmer ca. 1911; translated from the German by Dr. Th. Baker.
The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
in SELECTED WRITINGS: 1927-1934
Harvard University Press
Theorie der neuen Medien
Raben Verlag von Wittern, München 1990
Deutsche Sektion der internationalen Gesellschaft für elektroakustische Musik (DecimE)
Die Analyse elektroakustischer Musik - eine Herausforderung an die Musikwissenschaft?
Zwicker, E. Fastl
Psychoacoustics - Facts and Models (1997)
Springer-Verlag New York Heidelberg Berlin, 1982
Charles Dodge and Thomas A. Jerse
Computer Music, Synthesis, Composition, and Performance
Schirmer Books, New York, 1984
The Unanswered Question
Harvard University Press, 1976
Hofstadter, Douglas R.
Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid
Basic Books; (January 1999)
Top Overview © 2008 Copyright. All rights reserved.
Gestalt Bewegung Farbe
Born in Reichenbach in Lower Silesia/Germany in 1963.
From 1980 to 1985, he studied composition under Udo Zimmermann and piano at the Carl Maria von Weber Academy in Dresden.
During the following two years he was an independent artistic employee at the "SEK'D - Studio für elektronische Klangerzeugung Dresden" (Studio for Electronic Sound Generation in Dresden), where he was involved in concerts using live electronics and, in addition, sat in on informatics lectures at the Technical University in Dresden.
From 1987 to 1988 he was a master-class student under Georg Katzer at the GDR Academy of Arts in Berlin.
From 1988 onwards he extended his knowledge of musical electronics at the ICEM (Institute for Computer Music and Electronic Media) in Essen under Dirk Reith and has developed his own computer-aided compositional language "Celsyus".
From 1993 to 1995 he had a DAAD scholarship and carried out research at the University of Tel Aviv under his mentor Yitzhak Sadai into semiotics in electronic music.
From 1995 to 1997 he was secretary of the composer’s league of the society for new music of the "Ruhrgebiet" (GNMR), involved in the organization of concerts and festivals for contemporary and electronic music.
He married in 1998, lives in Tel Aviv with his wife and his daughter and, since then, continued to develop and carry out his artistic concept of "Freesound Music".
His compositions have been performed in various countries in and out of Europe.
Friedhelm Hartmann (Freed)
37 Spinoza, Tel Aviv
skype, MSN: freed.h