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    Concept                   Chole
Sangu Phleg
Concept       What is FleX?                                  
Implementation         In order to understand FleX better, we will have to look into music in general first.            
Presentation         We will base this on a simple typology of archetypes.                      
Contribution         Then, a multi-dimensional exploration of these archetypes will lead us to surprising insights.        
        Basics    > Explains the origin and the character of fundamental musical structures.          
                Introduces into the new metrics FleX music is based on.                
        Background    > Anthropology, Psychology, Music History and Historical Forms, Interdisciplinary       
                Relations, and Anecdotes.                          
        Applications    > Use Cases and Forms, Genres and Styles, Sound Trips, Hypersound Network,      
                Animated Sounds, Freesound, Communication Pyramid, Technical Information.      
        Glossary    > Most important terms of FleX Music.                      
The FleX concept is…       Phenomenal   Original   Functional     Attributive                  
Introduction       The FleX music concept is phenomenal, original, and functional oriented, presenting a net          
        of attributes for deeper musical understanding. The following chapter handles the essential          
        components of the concept in its most important aspects.                      
Phenomenal       First of all, and this is really important, the FleX music concept is phenomenal oriented.             
        What does it mean?                                    
        We are looking first into what happens to our senses when we are listening to music.            
        Then we are trying to get a more systematic understanding.                      
Phenomenon       The following are examples of four basic musical phenomenon FleX is built of. (Please visit          
        also other examples of the Freesound Music collections to gain a more complete experience.)          
             Figures       Layers     Events   Xpressions              
Animated Sounds      
Click graphic to                     
enter play mode.                    
        Figures, keeping a general attention level busy                        
        Musical structures dominated by permanent repetitive and rhythmical actions in order to keep           
        the musical flow going. These structures are highly 'communicative'. They allow other structures        
        to dock on while appearing as a constitutive background.                      
        Layers, allowing for concentration and meditation                      
        Musical structures of rather static nature or representing longer lasting processes. They allow           
        to 'dive' deeply into sound and sound complexes, experiencing mental space, and creating           
        a kind of emotional environment. Layers are not always present.                    
        Events, requiring sudden attention                            
        Musical actions of singular and individual character that occur rather arbitrary. Their appearance         
        can be very different and spans from fill-ins representing a kind of 'comment' till important major         
        changes or occurrences of the musical structure like special breaks, start of new sections, etc.          
        Xpressions, gaining highest overall focus of attention                    
        Musical structures leading the musical communication. Usually split in phrases, these structures        
        are of individual and expressive nature and most responsible for the 'message' of a certain piece         
        of music. Xpressions are almost always present.                          
Flexible Metrics       These phenomenon are universal and not unique to FleX music.                    
        Musical structures that are typical for FleX, appear with certain characteristics of flexible metrics,        
        Unlike music that is rasterized by an equi-distant tonal and rhythmical 'operating system':            
        > Sound sequences appear in variable frames lined up by multiple or modulated metrics.          
        > Sound sequences are not organized in static recurring loops based on a certain meter.          
        > Sounds moving through the full range of available frequencies creating dynamic harmonies.        
        > Sounds are not restricted to placements within a set of 12 halftones.                
        > Sounds appearing in any kind of sound transition.                        
        > Sounds are not bound by instrumental limitations.                        
        > Sounds are interconnected by an interactive environment providing flexible arrangements.        
        > Sounds are not burned down to an unchangeable sequence of musical events.            
Free Sounds       In one word - with FleX, sounds are free:                            
        > Free in its choice - a melody can be made of interesting noises.                  
        > Free in their parametric modulation - see flexible metrics above.                  
        > Free available - for everyone, everywhere.                          
        > Free in their combination - meeting in a continuous refreshment of their relationships.          
Vision       With FleX you take the advantage of experiencing common musical archetypes with the most           
        progressive sound design known today. The consideration of musical roots can lead and influence         
        further sound development while creating an environment for unexpected musical excitements.          
Original       What are the physical energies being behind the phenomenon we are talking about?            
Physical Energies      
      Figures are based on                        
        Figures   > Frequent Pulses.                        
              Pulses are created by sudden forceful actions onto material, like           
              strikes, or beats.                          
        Layers are based on                          
            Layers   > Lasting Passages.                        
                  Passages are an outcome of applying constant and uninterrupted           
                  power onto material, like wiping or striping (going along with the material).      
      Events are based on                          
        Events   > Effective Placements.                      
              Placements are a result of unpredictable power of any kind that          
              causes a change in the current sounding environment.              
      Xpressions are based on                        
        Xpressions > Xpiring Phrases.                          
              Phrases are an outcome of any power derived from an expiration          
              potential that encloses a big range of highly articulated actions.          
Elementary Structure       The typical elementary structure (morphemes) of the above appliances is:                
        Energy   Structure   Sound Examples         Visualization          
        Pulse   Repetition Steps, heart beat, water drops     |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||          
        Passage   Long Sound Traffic noise, sound of an engine, rain   _____________          
        Placement Vector   Glissando, sudden fade-in, bell sound
        Phrase   Fractal   Bird songs, speech, creaking door          
Time Structure       All elements can be characterized by a certain time structure:                      
        Energy   Duration     Estimation   Occurrence Probability            
        Pulse   Very short   0s <> 2s     Almost permanent              
        Phrase   Middle length   2s <> 8s     Very often                  
        Passage   Long     8s <> 30s     Many times                
        Placement Short     0s <> 8s     Arbitrary                  
Summary       The FleX concept considers physical origins being responsible for creating a basic level            
        of musical meaning, even in case, electronic sound generation or processing is being used.          
Functional       The functional aspects of the FleX concept point to the main underlying communicative             
        effects that the basic phenomenon cause in us when we listen to music.                  
Main Functions       Xmission and Integration                                
        Figures   Repetitive figures are most suitable to cause a physical resonance of our          
              body, creating the ultimate desire to move along with the sounds. In the same          
              time, our spirit is kept awake while continuously analyzing - even without knowing -        
              the ongoing relations and comparisons presented by the play of figures.            
              As a result, figures are creating a ground for transmission of musical information        
              that hardly can be rejected and that transport other musical phenomenon, while        
              providing the potential to integrate with them.                    
        Enlarging Experiences                                  
        Layers   Only if sound events stay persistent for a certain period of time we are able          
              to grasp their characteristics in greater depth. Layers provide the opportunity          
              to deep dive into musical structures and to develop a true emotional             
              relationship with them.                            
              Like figures, layers provide a kind of ongoing carrying functionality, while events         
              and expressions provoke rather particular and more focused reactions.            
        Leaving the Structure                                  
        Events   The primary function of events is to evoke the highest awareness in relation to          
              what the current musical situation provides. Events deliver the "greater picture".        
              They are the drivers for moving toward the exploration of further experiences.          
              A musical structure that owns very few surprises will tend to cause very            
              conservative and recurring behavior, while an overload of events cannot          
              keep the inherent and optimum power of the surprising information due to           
        Focusing on Messages                                  
        Xpressions The highest density and degree of a joint emotional and intellectual feedback          
              is caused by musical expressions. Without them, music is "playing" (figures),           
              "sounding" (layers), or "attracting" (events), but not "speaking" nor "telling"          
              We are following expressions as we follow some bodies' speech, and we are          
              responding with a well developed sense of interest that resides between          
              a pole of being bored (too much repetitions) and a pole of being overwhelmed        
              (too much different information) - a sense that is of course very personal            
              and depends on our own dynamic and individual hearing experiences.            
Summary       The functional aspects of the phenomenon are presented in a very roughly and idealized            
        manner. In order to explore them deeper along with the  whole set of the phenomenological           
        axioms and their interdependencies, various methods can be provided:                  
        > Topic maps and spread sheets that show independencies and analogies (see next section)        
        > Exploration of anthropological and psychological aspects (see next chapter "Background")        
        > Analyzing existing music (see next chapter "Background")                    
Mission       > The best of all: Openly experiencing the music itself with all senses (FleX serving as a tool)        
Attributive       The following table is an invitation for a deeper jump into the FleX typology. It shall provide some        
        inspiration helping to use the concept as a tool, while:                         
FleX as Tool       > presenting a vast variety of attributes to describe music as is                    
        > inviting you to add or share your own typological attributes and views                
        > envisioning an orientation for further development of new hearing experiences.            
Further Resources       Some of the items displayed in the table will be explored further in the following chapters            
        "Background" and "Applications". For a better understanding of the used terms you may also          
        visit the "Glossary" at the end of this page, or the "FleX Cube" (use link to the right).   >>          
FleX Associations       The FleX Associations Table                              
        Category     F-Type   L-Type   E-Type   X-Type            
Structure       Musical phenomenon Figures   Layers   Events   Xpressions          
        Physical origins   Frequent   Lasting   Effective   Xpiring            
                  Pulses   Passages Placements Phrases            
        Typical structure   Repetition   Long Sound Vector   Fractal            
        Typical function   Xmission and Entering   Leaving the Focusing on          
                  Integration Experiences Structure   Messages          
        Energetic direction   Introverted Introverted Extroverted Extroverted          
        Basic attention     Background Background Focus   Focus            
        Frames and Events   Open   Closed   Isolated   Related            
                  Frames   Frames   Events   Events            
          White = Structure                    
          Blue = Function                    
        View       Expansive Introspective Introspective Expansive          
        (Dominance)     Intellectual Emotional Intellectual Emotional          
Composition       High Level Phenomenon Continuous Consistent Change of   Complete            
                  Development Parameters Structure   Form            
        Structure generation   Generating Fusing   Interpreting Combining          
                  Structure   Structure   Structure   Structure            
        Generation tools   Rules   Mixer   Filter   Plans            
        Generative power   Generative Degenerative Degenerative Generative          
        Combinations of 4   Fused   Horizontal   Vertical   Horizontal            
        basic structures   into one   Combination Combination Vertical            
                  FLEXFL   X_________ X   E  L   F   F  FFFF            
                       FLXEF   E_________ X   E  L   F   L  E XX            
                    FLEXELF L_________ X   E  L   F     E  X            
                  XFLEXL   F_________ X   E  L   F   X LL            
        Musical Structure   Polyphony Homophony Heterophony Combinations          
        Basic musical forms   Fractal   Song   Serial   Story            
Music Theory       Classic forms     Fugue   Song   Variations   Sonata            
        Historic epoch     Baroque   Romantic   Neo-Classic Classic            
        Traditional music terms Rhythm   Harmony   Fill-in   Melody            
        Typical intervals   Steps   Repetition   Octave jump Quart jump          
        Play commands   Leggiero   Legato   Staccato   Marcato            
Sound Theory       Sound structures   Noise   Tone   Environment Spectra            
        Sound origins     Electronic   Vocal   Environmental Instrumental          
        Sound generation   Physical   Mechanical Sample   Composed          
                  Modeling   Generation Recording Sound            
        Sound life cycle   Spectra   Sustain   Side     Sound            
                  Opening   Spectra   Noise   Attack            
        Modulations     Slid Beats   Slid Sound Slid Structure Slid Pitches          
Praxis       Instruments     Drums   Strings   Wind instr.   Voice            
        Instrumental action   Striking   Bowing   Blowing   Singing            
        Combo       Drummer   Bass   Keyboarder Soloist            
        Presentations     Session   Recordings Exhibition   Performance          
        Contributor     Lecturer   Listener   Distributor   Musician            
        Architecture (Acoustics) Hall     Dome   Outside   Theater            
Interdisciplinary       Architecture (Style)   Gothic   Romanic   Baroque   Bauhaus            
        Fine Arts       Drawing   Painting   Collage   Sculpture            
        Literature       Roman   Poetry   Anecdotes Drama            
        Theater       Educational Tragedy   Comedy   Experimental          
        Grammar       Object   Subject   Attribute   Verb            
        Classic temperaments Phlegmatic Melancholic Sanguine   Choleric            
        Progressive attitude   New wine   Old wine   Old wine   New wine            
                  Old skin   Old skin   New skin   New skin            
        Anthropology   Psychology   Music History   Cross Links              
Anthropology       A snapshot of anthropologic musical roots can help to strengthen the view on musical            
        priorities and essential resources of expression.                          
Ancient Music       Anthropologic Roots                                  
Primary Sources       Xpressions and Figures represent most frequently executed actions of a human being:            
        1.  Doing things with hands, working.                             
        2. Communicating with voice, speaking.                            
Secondary Sources       Layers and Events represent rather re-creational actions:                      
        3.  Keeping things in place, meditating.                            
        4. Exploring new things, imitating, playing.                          
        The following video snip has been taken 2004 in San Francisco. It is a small recording            
        of original Indian music and dance and shows once more the human root-case of               
        musical structure:                                     
Indian Music Example,      
                  Video snippet:   >>          
San Francisco, 2004                         Audio snippet:   >>          
Click graphics to play                         Animated Sound:   >>          
video                         Geographical location: >>          
                          Freesound location:   >>          
Ancient roots       Drumming (1) and singing (2) may be the oldest musical expressions that originate from those           
        basic human actions as it can be seen from the above video clip.                    
        Ancient sound layers were produced through bowing, or sliding with the hands (3) while             
        blowing a pipe (4) might have been one of the most amazing musical events of the earliest days        
        of sound discovery.                                    
Summary       1.  Action: Rhythmical strokes, drumming                            
          Source: Human work experience, doing things                        
          Body: Hands                                    
          FleX-Type: Figures                                  
        2. Action: Shouting and singing, telling a story                          
          Source: Human communication through voice                        
          Body: Breathing system                                
          FleX-Type: Xpressions                                
        3.  Action: Generate sudden sounds with material, whistling                    
          Source: Human experiences based on exploring, playing, imitating                
          Body: Breathing system                                
          FleX-Type: Events                                  
        4. Action: Generate continuous sounds with material, bowing                    
          Source: Human mystification of lasting sounds                        
          Body: Hands                                    
          FleX-Type: Layers                                  
Unity of Elements       The "FleX Man"                                    
Man breaking through                                        
grid, Azrieli Center,                                        
Tel Aviv, 2006                                        
Click image to enlarge                                        
        The "FleX Man" symbolizes the unity of the four major musical areas as described above:          
"FleX Man"        \ F /                                        
        /    \                                        
        _________e E                                      
Description       > He needs intellectual abilities (F symbolizes his head).                      
        > He must feel well in his stomach (L symbolizes his stomach).                    
        > His arms and legs, i.e. his extremities (X) must be well trained to be able to act.            
        > He needs certain external devices and instruments to extend (E) his range,               
          like a surf board.                                  
Music Limitation Check       Now lets surf into music:                                  
        Try to think what happens if some of those elements are not enough developed or just             
        too big. You may find musical examples that are too head oriented and too intellectual,             
        or other music that does not care at all about cleverness but insists to permanently              
        invoke feelings, or music that just permanently runs and runs and runs, or another music            
        which sounds so strange and so far away that it completely looses its connection to the            
        body of the FleX Man.                                  
Self Check       Can you identify those examples from your experience?                      
        Which of the FleX Man elements are exaggerated in your examples?                  
        Secondly, the mapping of musical types to certain body areas is of course not a 1:1              
        relationship. Build examples where it is crossed, for example, meditative singing              
        corresponding to the Layer type.                                
Constitutive Areas       Anthropologic Constitution of Musical Parameters                      
        Beside the fundamental conditions of music generation, there are a lot of physical human            
        conditions that constitute music in its inner structure. Following a few examples:              
        > Feeling of speed (fast, slow) is based on average heart beat (1 second).              
        > Feeling of tone height (high, low) is based on human voice range.                  
        > Distinguishing rhythmical from tone frequencies is based on 16 Hz.                  
        > Distinguishing consonant from dissonant intervals is based on                   
          degree of periodical relation of frequencies.                          
        Beside those fundamental anthropologic features, musical structure must be explored            
        as a result of different complex social and individual psychological conditions.              
"Four Temperaments"                                                  
by an unknown artist                                                  
Musical Temperaments         Sanguine temperament, representing musical Event level                    
Click graphics or line         Choleric temperament, representing musical Xpression level                    
to get explanation                                                  
          Melancholic temperament, representing musical Layer level                    
          Phlegmatic temperament, representing musical Figures level                  
Cross Relations       Temperaments Chart